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Longhorn Characteristics

 

Longhorn Characteristics

 

Charles O'Bryant III
456 Waynick Road
Reidsville, NC 27320

 

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Characteristics of Longhorns

Desirable

Objectionable

Undesirable

A. Functional Efficiency

     
1. Fertility Early maturity and longevity

Cows - Feminine, regular and early calving

Bulls - Masculine, virile, high libido

Abnormal reproductive organs   
2. Sheath Retracted Prepuce, small orifice, flat small naval flap    Long pendulous sheath, non-retractable prepuce.  Excessive naval flap both male & female
3. Udder & teats Well attached, balanced Teats too large for calf to nurse at birth; meaty, broken, loosely attached Hard, firm, meaty udder, unable to produce enough milk for her calf
4. Disposition Mild, tractable Nervous   
5. Size Adequate for age Small for age, extremely over-sized   
6. Hair (dependent on environment) Short, straight, slick coat Long, curly hair   
7. Hide Vascular, mellow and pliable naval flap Tight, excessive skin fold, excessive sheath or naval flap Extra large sheath or naval flap
8. Legs and feet Squarely set, sound feet and joints Very short legs, sickle hocks and "post" legs, Mule-footed - extra close, weak hocks   

B. Conformation

        
1. General form or type Good length with moderate depth and thickness.  Top of hips higher than top of shoulders.  Elliptical shaped body for heat adaptation. Sound dense bones. Strong legs with free movement; Bulls slightly thicker and heavier muscled than cows. Exhibiting crest development on neck.    Any evidence of hump directly over shoulder region
2. Head Showing masculinity and femininity according to sex; moderate width with pronounced length from poll t muzzle.  Straight profile. Some evidence of throat flap. Nose extremely "pinched-in" above nostrils. Short blocky head.  Convex forehead. "Roman Nose". Pendulous dewlap   
3. Ears Medium to small, short round ears Longer, droopy ears Extremely large, droopy ears
4. Muzzle Mealy mouthed, pigmented Non-pigmented Wry nose, over shot or undershot jaw
5. Horns Cows: Slender, wide twisted outward "Pole measurement" of 40" or more, tip to tip on mature cows.

Bulls: Horns with longitudinal length and a forward and upward sweep. "Pole measurement" of 40" or more tip to tip on mature bulls.

Cows: Broad-based horns; horns that sharply curve upward. "Pole measurement" under 24", tip to tip, at 4 yrs of age.

Bulls: Horns that curve sharply upward "Pole measurement" of under 24" tip to tip at 3 yrs of age.

Cows: "Pole measurement" of under 24" tip to tip, at 5 yrs of age.

Bulls: "Pole measurement" of under 24" tip to tip at 4 ys of age

6. Neck Trim in cow.  Muscular in bull Ewe neck, very long or very short   
7. Shoulders Free moving, smooth and well muscled Open on top, sharply dropping down behind shoulders   
8. Brisket Trim and free from excessive fleshiness Excessive fat, downward sloping and excessive dewlap   
9. Heart Girth Elliptical and full Pinched girth   
10. Back Strong topline with slope upward from shoulders to hook bones Extreme swayback  
11. Loin Reasonably broad and full Extremely narrow and low  
12. Ribs Moderately well sprung, elliptical Slab sided  
13. Hooks Broad, reasonably prominent and sloping downward toward pin bones Narrowness in hooks  
14. Rump Long, moderately sloping from hooks to pins Short, narrow and extremely drooping  
15. Tail Long with full switch Very short tail Wry tail
16. Hindquarters Reasonably broad and muscular, moderately wide at pins Extremely narrow Double muscling

C. Color

     
1. Coat " Their colors were more varied than those of the rainbow.  There were brindles; blues-mulberry blue, ringstreaked blue, speckled blue; grullas - so named because they had the hue of the sandhill crane, also called mouse-colored, or slate duns, washed out and Jersey creams - all hues of "yellow," browns with bay points; blacks, solid and splotched with white, brown and red; whites both clearly bright and dirty speckled; many sabinas, red and white peppered; reds of all shades except the dark richness characteristic of the Hereford, pale reds being very common; paints of many combinations.  The line along the back was common, as in the mustang breed. Coarse brown hairs around the ears were characteristic. The shadings and combination of colors were so various that no two were alike".  J. Frank Dobie.

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